Ophthalmology is a field under medicine and surgery that focuses on the structure, the diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a doctor that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with the eyes. Typically, they could be medical doctors or doctors of osteopathy. They are trained to take care of the eyes and carry out activities such as eye examinations, medical and surgical care, evaluation of signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affects the eyes. To become an ophthalmologist, one has to obtain a medical degree, then proceed to a residency program in ophthalmology. They are trained to carry out both simple, complex and complicated diseases of the eyes. They are capable of treating all the types of diseases that might affect the eyes.
This is a condition in which the lens of the eyes become clouded. Some of the signs and symptoms of cataract are that people affected with the disease find it difficult to read, drive at night, and so on. Other symptoms include difficulty seeing at night, the appearance of halos around lights, development of double vision in one eye, patients might have to change their glasses regularly, they might require a brighter light to read, or see clearly. This disease has a slow onset but worsens over time. The exact cause of cataract isn’t known yet. However, it has been associated with conditions such as old age, and injuries to the lens tissues. Studies have also shown that genetics might play a role in the development of the disease.
A cataract can also develop as a result of the chronic use of steroidal medications, previous eye surgery, and as a complication of diabetes mellitus. Some factors have been identified to contribute to the development of cataract. Some of the risk factors include old age, diseases like diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, inflammation and so on. Ophthalmologists do recommend surgery when the disease starts impairing the daily activity of the patient. Surgery has been identified as the most effective treatment for this disease.
Smoking does the body no good. In fact, studies have shown that smoking a stick of cigarette exposes one to over 64 carcinogens. Apart from increasing the risk of developing cancer, smoking also increases the risk of developing diseases such as cataracts, macular degeneration, and damage to the optic nerve and so on. Although it’s difficult to quit smoking, the benefits of quitting are totally worth it. You should consult your physician for help if you find it difficult to stop the habit. Endeavor to wear sunglasses: Exposing the eyes to a lot of ultraviolet radiations from the sun damages the eyes. This increases the risk of developing many diseases of the eyes. Studies have shown that Ultraviolet rays exposure increases the chance of developing eye diseases such as macular degeneration and cataract. This is why it’s beneficial to get glasses that can block 100% of the different radiations from the sun. Contact lenses are also helpful, although they’re not as effective as sunglasses. Polaroid glasses are also useful in protecting our eyes from glares, especially when driving.
Don’t strain your eyes: One of the ways of maintaining good eyesight is by making sure we don’t strain our eyes. One of the means of doing this is by ensuring we read under bright lights. Straining the eyes to read prints spoils the eyes. Also, people that have to stare at a computer screen or mobile phone should wear glasses that are good for looking at these screens. Staring at a screen for long periods would eventually lead to eye strains, which is terrible for the eyes. Other ways of going about this are by strategically placing your screen so that it’s on the same level as your eyes, and also looking away from the screen for at least every 20 minutes. References Ayala, M., & Cuklev, F. (2018). Indistinguishable gene expression between healthy eyes and eyes with unilateral exfoliative glaucoma. Clinical Ophthalmology, Volume 12, 1155-1162. doi: 10.2147/opth.s166958 Anon, (2018). [online] Available at: http://glaucoma stem cell [Accessed 15 Jan. 2018]. Anton, A. (2003). Early Detection of Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 12(1), pp.59-62. Karl, M. (2013). The potential of stem cell research for the treatment of neuronal damage in glaucoma. Cell and Tissue Research, 353(2), pp.311-325. Li, Y., Li, D., Ying, X., Khaw, P. and Raisman, G. (2015). An energy theory of glaucoma. Glia, 63(9), pp.1537-1552.